Computation and analysis of highly stable and efficient non-toxic perovskite CsSnGeI3 based solar cells to enhance efficiency using SCAPS-1D software

Md. Momin Hossain, Md. Yakub Ali Khan, Md. Abdul Halim, Nafisa Sultana Elme, Md. Shoriful Islam


This paper examines the physical, optical, and electrical characteristics of cesium tin-germanium triiodide based single halide Perovskite absorption materials in order to provide the best photovoltaic application. In light of the diversification of the use of natural resources, perovskite solar cells are becoming more and more essential for capturing renewable energy. In this research work, a cesium tin–germanium triiodide ( CsSnGeI3) perovskite-based solar cell (PSC) has been reported to achieve a high-power-conversion efficiency (PCE).  CsSnGeI3 perovskite-based solar cell has been proposed for the Pb and toxic-free (Al/FTO/ TiO2/CsSnGeI3/Mo) structure simulated in Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS-1D software. At first aluminum, fluorine-doped tin oxide, Titanium dioxide, cesium tin–germanium triiodide and   Molybdenum have been inserted into SCAPS and simulated using specific temperature. In this simulation, the electron transport layer (ETL) FTO, the buffer layer  TiO2, and the absorber layer  CsSnGeI3 were all used. Utilizing variations in thickness including absorber and buffer, defect density, operating temperature, back contact work function, series and shunt resistances, acceptor density, and donor density, the performance of the proposed photovoltaic devices was quantitatively assessed. Throughout the simulation, the absorber layer thickness was held constant at 1.6 μm, the buffer layer at 0.05 μm, and the electron transport layer at 0.5 μm. A solar cell efficiency of 24.75%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.95 volts, a short-circuit current density of 30.61 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 85.42% have all been recorded for the  CsSnGeI3 absorber layer. Our ground-breaking findings unequivocally show that CsSnGeI3-based PSC is a strong contender to quickly overtake other single-junction solar cell technologies as the most effective.


Perovskite-based solar cell (PSC); TiO2 buffer; CsSnGeI3 absorber; Renewable and Sustainable; SCAPS-1D

Full Text:



P. S. Balakrishnan, M. F. Shabbir, A. Siddiqi and X. Wang, “Current status and future prospects of renewable energy: A case study,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 42, no. 21, pp. 2698-2703, 2020.

M. A. Halim, S. K. Biswas, M. S. Islam and M. M. Ahmed, “Numerical Simulation of Non-toxic ZnSe Buffer Layer to Enhance Sb2S3 Solar Cell Efficiency Using SCAPS-1D Software,” International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems, vol. 2. no. 4, pp. 709-720, 2022.

M. A. Halim, M. M. Hossain and M. J. Nahar, “Development of a Nonlinear Harvesting Mechanism from Wide Band Vibrations,” International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 467-476, 2022.

M. S. J. Marshall, J. Wang, S. Miller, B. Singh and V. Nagarkar, "Developing Perovskite Halide Scintillator thin films for Fast-Timing applications," 2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), Boston, MA, USA, 2020, pp. 1-2, doi: 10.1109/NSS/MIC42677.2020.9508006.

T. Abzieher et al., "Efficient All-Evaporated pin-Perovskite Solar Cells: A Promising Approach Toward Industrial Large-Scale Fabrication," in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1249-1257, Sept. 2019, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2920727.

A. Panda, K. Palodhi, R. Chakraborty and S. Maiti, “Modified thin film perovskite solar cell for high conversion efficiency,” Optik, vol. 246, p. 167838, 2021.

K. Sobayel et al., “A comprehensive defect study of tungsten disulfide (WS2) as electron transport layer in perovskite solar cells by numerical simulation,” Results in Physics, vol. 12, pp. 1097-1103, 2019.

S. Pescetelli, A. Agresti, S. Razza, L. A. Castriotta and A. Di Carlo, "Large area perovskite solar modules with improved efficiency and stability," 2019 International Symposium on Advanced Electrical and Communication Technologies (ISAECT), Rome, Italy, 2019, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ISAECT47714.2019.9069679.

H. Sabbah, “Numerical simulation of 30% efficient lead-free perovskite CsSnGeI3-based solar cells,” Materials, vol. 15, no. 9, p. 3229, 2022.

M. S. Rahman, S. Miah, M. S. W. Marma and M. Ibrahim, "Numerical Simulation of CsSnI3-based Perovskite Solar Cells: Influence of doped-ITO Front Contact," 2020 IEEE REGION 10 CONFERENCE (TENCON), Osaka, Japan, 2020, pp. 140-145, doi: 10.1109/TENCON50793.2020.9293828.

M. -E. Yeoh and K. -Y. Chan, "A Review on Semitransparent Solar Cells for Real-Life Applications Based on Dye-Sensitized Technology," in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 354-361, March 2021, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.3047199.

W. C. Chen et al., “High luminescence and external quantum efficiency in perovskite quantum-dots light-emitting diodes featuring bilateral affinity to silver and short alkyl ligands,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 414, pp. 128866, 2021.

M. Kari and K. Saghafi, “Current-voltage hysteresis reduction of CH3NH3PbI3 planar perovskite solar cell by multi-layer absorber,” Micro and Nanostructures, vol. 165, p. 207207, 2022.

K. J. Savill, A. M. Ulatowski and L. M. Herz, “Optoelectronic properties of tin–lead halide perovskites,” ACS Energy Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 2413-2426, 2021.

S. H. Zyoud, A. H. Zyoud, N. M. Ahmed and A. F. Abdelkader, “Numerical modelling analysis for carrier concentration level optimization of CdTe heterojunction thin film–based solar cell with different non–toxic metal chalcogenide buffer layers replacements: using SCAPS–1D software,” Crystals, vol. , no. 12, p. 1454, 2021.

R. Raghvendra, R. Kumar and S. K. Pandey, “Performance evaluation and material parameter perspective of eco-friendly highly efficient CsSnGeI3 perovskite solar cell,” Superlattices Microstruct., vol. 135, p. 106273, 2019.

J. Gulomov, O. Accouche, R. Aliev, B. Neji, R. Ghandour, I. Gulomova and M. Azab, “Geometric optimization of perovskite solar cells with metal oxide charge transport layers,” Nanomaterials, vol. 12, no. 15, p. 2692, 2022.

S. S. Hussain et al., “Numerical modeling and optimization of lead-free hybrid double perovskite solar cell by using SCAPS-1D,” Journal of Renewable Energy, vol. 2021, pp. 1-12, 2021.

A. Sunny, S. Rahman, M. M. Khatun and S. R. A. Ahmed, “Numerical study of high performance HTL-free CH3NH3SnI3-based perovskite solar cell by SCAPS-1D,” AIP Advances, vol. 11, no. 6, p. 065102, 2021.

S. Abdelaziz, A. Zekry, A. Shaker, M. Abouelatta, “Investigating the performance of formamidinium tin-based perovskite solar cell by SCAPS device simulation,” Optical Materials, vol. 101, p. 109738, 2020.

P. Tiwari et al., “Design and Simulation of Efficient SnS-Based Solar Cell Using Spiro-OMeTAD as Hole Transport Layer,” Nanomaterials, vol. 12, no. 14, p. 2506, 2022.

S. Debnath and M. S. Islam, "Performance Analysis of Perovskite Solar Cell with Inorganic Hole Transport Material using SCAPS-1D," 2022 4th International Conference on Electrical, Computer & Telecommunication Engineering (ICECTE), Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 2022, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ICECTE57896.2022.10114547.

R. A. Rassol, R. F. Hasan and S. M. Ahmed, “Numerical Analysis of SnO2/Zn2SnO4/n-CdS/p-CdTe Solar Cell Using the SCAPS-1D Simulation Software,” Iraqi Journal of Science, pp. 505-516, 2021.

O. Bajjou, M. Al-Hattab, A. Najim, L. Moulaoui, A. Bakour and K. Rahmani, "Modeling and simulation of a solar cell based on CIGS/CdS/ZnO," 2022 2nd International Conference on Innovative Research in Applied Science, Engineering and Technology (IRASET), Meknes, Morocco, 2022, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/IRASET52964.2022.9737875.

S. Rai, B. K. Pandey, D. K. Dwivedi, “Modeling of highly efficient and low cost CH3NH3Pb(I1-xClx)3 based perovskite solar cell by numerical simulation,” Optical Materials, vol. 100, p. 109631. 2020.

L. Et-taya, T. Ouslimane, A. Benami, “Numerical analysis of earth-abundant Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 solar cells based on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry results by using SCAPS-1D,” Solar Energy, vol. 201, pp. 827-835, 2020.

P. Yan, S. Hu, H. Li, W. Gu and C. Sheng, "Efficient Solar Cell Based on Semitransparent Film of Two-Dimensional Alternating Cation Perovskite," in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 70-76, Jan. 2023, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2022.3223235.

A. M. Shaheen, A. R. Ginidi, R. A. El-Sehiemy and S. S. M. Ghoneim, "A Forensic-Based Investigation Algorithm for Parameter Extraction of Solar Cell Models," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 1-20, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3046536.

H. C. Sio et al., "3-D Modeling of Multicrystalline Silicon Materials and Solar Cells," in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 965-973, July 2019, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2914874.

P. Kumari, B. S. Sengar and A. Kumar, "SCAPS Modelling of solar cells: Deploying a back surface field SnS layer for performance upgradation," 2020 5th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Electronics (ICEE), New Delhi, India, 2020, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ICEE50728.2020.9777010.

K. K. Maurya am d V. N. Singh, “ Enhancing the performance of an Sb2Se3-based solar cell by dual buffer layer,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 21, p. 12320, 2021.

M. Al-Hattab, M. Khenfouch, O. Bajjou, Y. Chrafih and K. Rahmani, “Numerical simulation of a new heterostructure CIGS/GaSe solar cell system using SCAPS-1D software,” solar energy, vol. 227, pp. 13-22, 2021.

I. Alam and M. A. Ashraf, “Effect of different device parameters on tin-based perovskite solar cell coupled with In2S3 electron transport layer and CuSCN and Spiro-OMeTAD alternative hole transport layers for high-efficiency performance,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, pp. 1-17, 2020.

D. K. Sharma, S. K. N, M. S. Ilango and S. K. Ramasesha, "Efficiency Enhancement of the CdS/CdTe Solar Nanostructured Cell Using Electron-Reflecting Layer," in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1129-1134, March 2021, doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3051356.

A. M. Rahman, “Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of Cd-free Cu2ZnSnS4 heterojunction solar cells using SnS HTL and TiO2 ETL,” Solar Energy, vol. 215, pp. 64-76, 2021.

A. Basak and U. P. Singh, “Numerical modelling and analysis of earth abundant Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 based solar cells using SCAPS-1D,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 230, p. 111184, 2021.

Y. Luo, J. Lai, N. Yan, W. An and K. Ma, "Integration of Aperture-Coupled Multipoint Feed Patch Antenna With Solar Cells Operating at Dual Compressed High-Order Modes," in IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1468-1472, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2021.3087500.

B. K. Ravidas, M. K. Roy and D. P. Samajdar, "Photovoltaic Performance Metrics of CsSnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells using SCAPS-1D," 2022 IEEE 6th Conference on Information and Communication Technology (CICT), Gwalior, India, 2022, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/CICT56698.2022.9997957.

M. Abdelfatah, W. Ismail, N. M. El-Shafai A. El-Shaer, “Effect of thickness, bandgap, and carrier concentration on the basic parameters of Cu2O nanostructures photovoltaics: numerical simulation study,” Materials Technology, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 712-720, 2021.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Momin Hossain, Md. Yakub Ali Khan, Md. Abdul Halim, Nafisa Sultana Elme, Md. Shoriful Islam

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Signal and Image Processing Letters
ISSN Online: 2714-6677 | Print: 2714-6669
Published by Association for Scientific Computing Electrical and Engineering (ASCEE)
Website :
Email 1 :
Email 2 :


Creative Commons License

View My Stats