A Review on Stability Challenges and Probable Solution of Perovskite–Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

Md Momin Hossain, Md. Yakub Ali Khan, Md. Abdul Halim, Nafisa Sultana Elme, Md. Nayeem Hussain


Perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells have shown great potential in increasing the efficiency of solar cells, with efficiencies reaching as high as 25%. However, the stability of these cells remains a major challenge that must be addressed before they can be commercialized. This review focuses on the stability challenges of perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells and possible solutions to address these challenges. The main stability issues include the instability of the perovskite layer, the degradation of the silicon layer, and the failure of the interfaces between the layers. One solution is to use more stable perovskite materials, such as methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) or formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), which have shown better stability than traditional perovskite materials. Another solution is to use passivating layers, such as titanium dioxide, to protect the perovskite layer from degradation. Another solution is to use silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, which have shown better stability than traditional silicon solar cells. In addition, the use of encapsulation techniques, such as using a barrier layer or a hermetic seal, can help to protect the tandem solar cell from environmental degradation. In order to improve the stability of perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells, it is important to continue research on the development of more stable perovskite materials, passivating layers, and encapsulation techniques. Additionally, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of degradation and to develop methods for monitoring and mitigating the degradation of the tandem solar cells.


Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cell_1; Perovskite Solar Cell_2; MAPbI3_3; FAPbI3_4; Tandem Solar Cell_5; Stabilit_6; Challenges_7

Full Text:



M. A. Halim, S. K. Biswas, M. S. Islam and M. M. Ahmed, “Numerical Simulation of Non-toxic ZnSe Buffer Layer to Enhance Sb2S3 Solar Cell Efficiency Using SCAPS-1D Software,” International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 709-720, 2022.

T. Saha, M. S. Islam, M. A. Halim, Y. M. Prianka and M. M. Ahmed, “ Simulation and Investigation of Cd-free SnS-based Solar Cells with a ZnSe as a Buffer Layer using SCAPS-1D,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, vol. 7, no. 10, 2022.

R. Shukla, R. R. Kumar and S. K. Pandey, "Theoretical Study of Charge Carrier Lifetime and Recombination on the Performance of Eco-Friendly Perovskite Solar Cell," in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 3446-3452, July 2021, doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3078063.

Y. Cheng and L. Ding, “Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells: Fundamentals, advances, challenges, and novel applications,” SusMat, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 324-344, 2021.

M. A. Halim, M. M. Hossain and M. J. Nahar, “Development of a Nonlinear Harvesting Mechanism from Wide Band Vibrations,” International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 467-476, 2022.

R. M. France, J. F. Geisz, T. Song, W. Olavarria, M. Young, A. Kibbler and M. A. Steiner, “Triple-junction solar cells with 39.5% terrestrial and 34.2% space efficiency enabled by thick quantum well superlattices,” Joule, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1121-1135, 2022.

R. He et al., “Wide-bandgap organic–inorganic hybrid and all-inorganic perovskite solar cells and their application in all-perovskite tandem solar cells,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 5723-5759, 2021.

N. Barreau et al., "High efficiency solar cell based on Cu(In,Ga)S2 thin film grown by 3-stage process," 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, AB, Canada, 2020, pp. 1715-1718, doi: 10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300598.

E. Veinberg‐Vidal et al., “Characterization of dual‐junction III‐V on Si tandem solar cells with 23.7% efficiency under low concentration,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 652-661, 2019.

S. V. Katkar, K. G. Kharade, N. S. Patil, V. R. Sonawane, S. K. Kharade R. K. Kamat, “Predictive Modeling of Tandem Silicon Solar Cell for Calculating Efficiency,” In Advances in Computing and Data Sciences: 5th International Conference, ICACDS, vol. 1441, pp. 183-194, 2021.

A. D. J Khan, F. E. Subhan, A. D. Khan, S. D. Khan, M. S. Ahmad, M. S. Rehan and M. Noman, “Optimization of efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell,” Optik, vol. 208, 164573, 2020.

M. Mousa, F. Z. Amer, A. Saeed and R. I. Mubarak, "Simulation of High-Efficiency Perovskite-Based Tandem Solar Cells," 2020 6th International Symposium on New and Renewable Energy (SIENR), Ghadaia, Algeria, 2021, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/SIENR50924.2021.9631919.

R. Pandey et al., "Cadmium Telluride Cells on Silicon as Precursors for Two-Junction Tandem Cells," 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, AB, Canada, 2020, pp. 1326-1329, doi: 10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300571.

P. Tockhorn, P. Wagner, L. Kegelmann, J. C. Stang, M. Mews, S. Albrecht and L. Korte, “Three-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with top and interdigitated rear contacts,” ACS Applied Energy Materials, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1381-1392, 2020.

Kim, S. J., Kim, W. J., Cartwright, A. N., & Prasad, P. N. (2009). Self-Passivating hybrid (organic/inorganic) tandem solar cell. Solar energy materials and solar cells, 93(5), 657-661.

A. Al-Ashouri et al., “Monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with> 29% efficiency by enhanced hole extraction,” Science, vol. 370, no. 6522, pp. 1300-1309, 2020.

S. Gharibzadeh et al., "2D Surface Passivation in Semi-transparent Perovskite Top Solar Cells with Engineered Bandgap for Tandem Photovoltaics," 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, AB, Canada, 2020, pp. 1344-1345, doi: 10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300952.

M. Isah et al., “Design optimization of CdTe/Si tandem solar cell using different transparent con